The A330-200 simulator uses the generic aircraft models tailored to simulate the A330-200 specific systems. Thus the names used are not identical to the LRI names of the Airbus A330-200. The organisation of the generic models enables less interfacing whilst maintaining reasonably sized model objects.














The aerodynamics model is a full stability derivative model for the A330-200 based on observations of the aircraft performance. CL,CD,CM, rolling moment, yawing moment and side force coefficients are all modelled and take account of the aircraft flight control surfaces, landing gear positions, slats and flaps.



The Autopilot, Auto throttle and FMC functions of the FMGS are modelled. The simulator can fly a entered flight plan and navigate from take off to approach or G/A. Almost all possible  MCDU pages are available, including all flight entry type pages, vertical revision pages and lateral revision pages etc. The MCDU part of this simulation is integrated into the Airbus MCDU Aid. The A/P and A/THR have been included in the Airbus FMGS Aid.

Radio Altimeter


The radio altimeter model accounts for the aircraft pitch and roll attitude and passes on valid radio altimeter values for -6 ft to 2500 ft. It is correctly scaled for the height above terrain of the Cg for when the main wheel touch the runway. The radio altitude is displayed on the PFD below 2000 ft and is used in the auto land control laws.



The Pneumatics model interfaces with the overhead air panel and models the pressurisation and temperature of the cabin. The model accounts for open doors, FMGC landing altitude, status of the packs, and all control inputs at the air panel.


The pressurisation schedule is slightly different from the Airbus, as the simulator will not doubt be flown in a non normal (takeoff, climb, cruise, approach and land) manner. The model allows sensible pressurisation of the cabin for continuous climb and descent manoeuvring . When flown as a route from take off to landing, the pressurisation schedule will be similar to the airbus system.




The Hydraulics model completely simulates the 3 separate hydraulic systems, Green, Yellow and Blue  of the A330. It models the electrical pumps and the engine driven hydraulic pumps. The system pressures respond to the control surface movements. All controls on the overhead hydraulic control panel function, and the correct system responses occur. The RAT input is currently not modelled.

Flight Controls


The flight control simulation covers the Airbus Fly By Wire computers and their 3 control laws, Normal, Direct and alternate. The Flight Controls model take input from the joy stick or Autopilot and through the relevant control law drive the surfaces, elevator, aileron, spoilers and rudder.  The model also includes the Alpha protection and over speed protection control laws and computes the limit speeds for the Primary Flight Display.



Equations Of Motion


At the heart of the aircraft simulation is the 6 DOF quaternion equations of motion. These accept inputs of aerodynamic forces and moments, ground reaction forces and moments and engine forces and moments. In addition the model allows for step changes in wind and altitude and position. A WG85 type geographical model computes actual latitude and longitude for the rest of the simulation



The engine model is a simple LFI type model of a 2 spool N1 type hi bypass fan engine. The actual engine parameters of a CF6 or RR Trent engine are used to scale the outputs of the simple model to produce representative thrust, EGT, and fuel flow parameters.  A FADEC model interfaces the engine to the  throttle box model, and passes data to the displays

Auto Brake


The Auto brake models allows the automatic activation of main gear wheel brakes for touch down and rejected take off. The auto brake values are determined from the A/B selection on the landing gear panel. The Auto brake models also sets the "Decel" light on the panel. When the speed brake lever is fitted the A/B model will be armed using the status of the speed brake handle



The ADIRU model is split into the traditional Air Data System (ADS) model and the Inertial Reference system (IRS) model.


The ADS has a complete model of 3 Air Data computers and 3 Pitot static models, which can include varying static error to allow for slightly different readings.


The 3 Pitot static models fully account for any ground static pressure variance.


The IRS models 3 IRU, which correctly model the sensed aircraft accelerations and velocities at their location in the airframe.  The ADS and IRU correctly respond to inputs form the over head panel and from the MCDU

Weight and Balance (WBC)


The weight and balance model computes the aircraft mass, and cg as fuel is used and passes this information onto the FMGS.  Its input is the inertia model located in the Equations of Motion. The WBC values are used by the FMGS to control fuel Xfr commands to maintain reasonable Cg.


The FMGS interfaces withe the fuel model to control the CG value during flight. The fuel model uses forward and aft fuel transfers to effect this control.

Phase Of Flight (POF)


Through out the avionics models there is a need to compute the POF for use in system logic. This model produces one generic POF and two specific POFs, one for the Warning Computer and one for the FMGS. The POF can be set accordingly when performing repositions etc.


Navigation Radios


The Navigation radio models the ability to tune and receive VOR or NDB information and display the raw data on the displays and pass back positional data to the FMGS.  The data set for the station data contains information about the reception range of each station, which sis used to determine if reception is possible. Line Of Sight calculations are used to determine the current range to station. Terrain occultation is not done.




The Light model computes the lighting discretes that would be needed by a visual interface. It also provides the electrical loading input to the electrical system. The overhead light switches are used as input.


Flap / Slat system


This model encompasses the flaps, slats and their respective drive mechanisms and control unit. the model computes flap load relive and schedules the flaps according to the flap handle setting and the aircraft POF. The model responds correctly to hydraulic supply availability of the Green and Yellow systems. The model also interfaces with the Flight Controls System to produce the Alpha Lock function.




The simulation uses a central warning system model which ultimately produces the ECAM messages on the EWD and auto-page changes on the System displays. The model is designed to produce any ECAM message that is known. Not all ECAM messages are known to date, so the model is flexible and allows any additional logic and message to be added easily.


The text message and its control status (underlined, indented, color, associated messages etc) is sent to the display so only one model needs to be updated as more ECAM messages and possibility of ECAM messages occurs



To allow for the possibility of using other displays systems and in accordance to the hardware design, the whole of the interface to the PFD, ND, EWD and System displays is performed in one model.  This one model collects the data from the simulated avionics buses and discrete information from the models and packages the information ready to send on Ethernet to any other PC capable of producing a Display.  Each Display data is a single package.  Each display system package has a header indicating the type of display and therefore allows the end user to interrupt the package data. In this way the physical left ND can show the left PFD, simply by changing the data package.  For some displays, there are various "pages" such as the system display and the Navigation Display. The Page header information within the data package allows the end user to interpret the information correctly. thus there is only one ND data package sent (to each side), but it may contain the VOR, or Plan information depending upon the knob selection in the cockpit. Pilot and Co-Pilot display data are independent.




There is a simple model of the doors to allow the Doors Page on the system Display and the pressurisation model to function. This allows the Yellow hydraulic system to operate on the ground using the electrical pump for the opening and closing of the cargo door.

Stab Trim (FAC)


The stab trim model  simulates the auto stab trim function using inputs from the Flight Control system. The stab trim model will be able to accept manual input when a trim wheel is fitted in the cockpit

Fuel System


The fuel system model consist of fuel tanks, pumps, valves and pipes. A full model of the A330-200 exists, include forward and aft transfer and outer to inner tank transfer, both manual and automatic.  

Yaw Damper (FAC)


The yaw damper model is required at low speed to stabilise the Dutch roll tendency of the aircraft. It is connected in series to the parallel rudder inputs from the flight controls system.





A full A330-200 electrical system model exits and provides the voltage and load states of all the AC and DC electrical busses.


The system correctly responds to the inputs from the overhead electrical panel, APU, ground power etc.


Emergency generator is not yet modeled, but the emergency electrical panel is functional.



A generic APU model simulates the A330 APU functions, from start through to shut down. This includes APU door opening, N1, EGT changes for Bleed or generator on/off, 120 sec shut down time, and realistic EGT and N1 values for display.

Throttle box


A throttle box model exits to connect the engine FADECs to the either the Auto throttle function of the FMGS or to the actual throttles. All thrust lever detent positions modelled, such as IDLE, CL, MCT/FLEX and TOGA



Landing Gear


The landing gear model simulates the landing gear system performance, up/down transitions, display indications, wheel temperatures etc. In addition the landing gear model also contains the appropriate ground re-action physics for the equations of motion

Reservoir quantity

Fully modeled, with effects of system usage etc.

Reservoir Overheat

Modeled as a malfunction

Reservoir Low Air

Effects of loss of bleed air modeled

System pressure

Realistic effects of usage, flap changes landing gear movement etc.

Shut Off Valves

Correctly modeled with Green system being automatic

Engine driven pumps

Full integration with the electrical system and the overhead panel

Electrical driven pumps

Full integration with the electrical system and the overhead panel

Hydraulic ECAM messages

Low system pressure, Low Air, amber warnings. Dual system failure Red warnings modeled


Not modeled


Fully modeled, sensor conditioned, with engage and disconnect logic .


Fully modeled, sensor conditioned, with engage and disconnect logic .

Pitch Modes

ALT *, ALT, OP CLB, CLB, OP DES, DES, SRS, V/S, FPA, G/S all modeled

Roll Modes


A/THR modes



Fully modeled except metric alt

CAT 1,2,3 ILS

Fully modeled, with G/S, LOC, LAND, FLARE, ROLL OUT modes all functioning

PFD indications

Target values, Flight Mode Annunciations, F/D . FPV all modeled

Bleed System

Fully modeled for APU bleed and engine bleed. Ground air not modeled.


Fully modeled, integrated with the PACK FLOW knob and system configuration

Air Conditioning

Fully modeled and integrated with overhead AIR panel.


Partially modeled, avionics ventilation model is representative


Fully modeled, integrated with FMGS landing altitude and overhead panel for manual control


Fully modeled System display pages of BLEED. COND and PRESS and Crz page values


Normal C Laws

Fully modeled, attitude, G values limitations and speed protection included

Alternate C Laws

Fully modeled

Direct C Laws

Fully modeled


All pitch laws implemented and integration with the A/P


All roll laws implemented and integration with the A/P


Yaw damper and integration with the A/P modeled

Alpha speeds

Normal and Direct alpha speed protection and PFD indication modeled

Over speed protection

Over speed protection for Gear, Flap, VMO, MMO implemented

Side Stick integration

Flight Controls integrated with Commercial Joy Sticks, Offsets and scaling catered for


Full system display for Flight Controls modeled


Full integration with the overhead panels for flight controls

Stab Trim

Fully modeled, both manually and automatic. Auto stab trim set when performing repositions

Flap Aileron offset

Not modeled Aileron neutral position does not change for flap settings





Automatic Engine Start

Fully modeled, IGN settings, APU bleed input, automatic fuel flow at N2 % values.

Manual engine start

Fully modeled. Overhead panel MAN buttons modeled.

Engine Fire buttons

Fully modeled


Engine System display fully modeled





Auto Brake selection

Fully modeled, MIN, MED and MAX

Speed Brake integration

Fully integrated, auto brakes function at ground spoiler deployment.


Fully modeled, MAX braking fully functioning. DECEL indications modeled

Brake Heating

Brake heating effects modeled and HOT BRAKE indications appear when above 300 Deg C

Brake Cooling

Brake Fan modeled and integrated

Blue Hydraulic system

Fully integrated with accumulator model

Green Hydraulic system

Fully integrated

Triple indicator

Partially modeled, Brake pressure indications are only off and on.

3 impendent systems

Fully modeled, X.Y Z offsets from CG .

Air data buttons

Fully integrated with panel and displays.

Electrical conditioning

On Batteries, electrical busses etc fully modeled

MCDU pages

Fully integrated to the MCDU Data pages


Fully integrated with the INIT MCDU page



There is a simple clock model that integrates at the simulation rate to provide UTC time to all avionics. The clock can initialised either to a simulation scenario tome or to current UTC time. The main user of the clock is the FMGS for ETA predictions and RTA predictions


UTC time synchronized to current world time

Stop watch

Integrated to Chrono button on glare shield

Chrono on ND

Stop watch time indicated on ND

Auto Nav Selection

NDB/VOR radio stations used for navigation automatically updated through the flight


Operation RAD NAV MCDU page. ILS, VOR, ADF and auto selection available

ND  interfaces

Radio navigation indications on the ND


Fully integrated to the Auto flight system for Auto land

Flap handle panel

All flap settings available

EWD indications

Full Flap/Slat indications on the EWD

Hydraulic interfaces

Fully integrated with the Hydraulic system

Alpha lock

Alpha slat lock modeled

Flap load relief

Automatic flap load relief modeled

On ground refueling

Fully modeled

Center tank transfers

Fully modeled

Outer to Inner transfers

Automatic and manual modeled

Forward / Aft transfers

Automatic and manual modeled, fully integrated to MCDU/FMGS

Fuel panel

Fully integrated to overhead fuel panel

Fuel plant model

All valvles, pumps, tanks, pipes fully modeled

Fuel jettison

Fully modeled

AC electrical circuits

Fully modeled

DC electrical circuits

Fully modeled

External power

Fully modeled

APU generator

Fully modeled

Engine generators

Fully modeled

Emergency generator

Not yet implemented

Load shedding

Fully modeled

Landing Gear panel

Fully modeled and integrated with the landing gear model

Triple indicator

Shows the brake applied pressure as on/off.


Fully integrated with the ECAM to display landing gear warnings.

Auto brakes

Fully modeled, Max. Med and Min

System display

Fully modeled

Spd Tape

Fully modeled

Hdg Tape

Fully modeled

Alt Tape

Fully modeled

V/S indicator

Fully modeled

ADI ball

Fully modeled


Fully modeled and integrated with the NAV Control panel


Fully modeled and integrated to  the FMGS


LOC and G/S scales fully modeled

Vertical Deviation

Fully modeled and integrated with the MCDU


Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully integrated with the Nav Control Panel


Fully integrated with the Nav Control Panel


Fully integrated with the Nav Control Panel


Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully modeled

Fuel Flow

Fully modeled

Flap indicator

Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Integrated with all the other aircraft systems


Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully modeled

Air Con

Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully modeled

Flt Controls

Fully modeled


Fully modeled


Fully modeled

Electrical AC

Fully modeled

Electrical DC

Fully modeled


Fully modeled

ECAM Panel

Fully integrated